Progress for reducing inequalities within countries has varied over the years. Gains have been made in reducing income inequality, preferential trade status benefiting lower-income countries and decreasing transaction costs for remittances. However, immense inequalities remain regarding age, sex, disabilities, race, ethnicities, religion, and economic status. This goal also calls attention to inequalities related to representation, migration, and development assistance. The voices that are so often ignored need to be heard and amplified.
Goal 10, like many other SDGs, has suffered since the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the UN, the number of refugees reached its highest amount in 2020, and due to strict pandemic restrictions, thousands of immigrants died along their migration route. This crisis has disproportionately affected the poorest and most vulnerable communities and has put a spotlight on the disparities that many people are unjustly facing. These groups see discrimination most regarding health and socioeconomic situations. A sustainable and thriving planet can only be achieved when it includes everyone.
Targets & Indicators
When the UN General Assembly introduced the Sustainable Development Goals in 2015, they listed the targets that needed to meet for each goal. These targets break down what needs to be achieved to consider the goal completed. The UN Statistical Commission created the IAEG (International Agency and Expert Group) in 2017, which was tasked with creating the “indicators” for each target. These indicators were created to put measures in place to track the process being made on each target.
Targets and indicators were developed by the UN as a working blueprint for nations, organizations, and people to use when implementing SDGs in their everyday actions. Looking to the targets for the respected goal is the best way to execute the use of them in your work.
10.1By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 percent of the population at a rate higher than the national average.
- 10.1.1 Growth Rates of Household Expenditure or Income per Capita Among the Bottom 40 Percent of the Population and the Total Population
10.2By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic, and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion, economic, or other status.
- 10.2.1 Proportion of People Living Below 50 Percent of Median Income by Age, Sex, and Persons with Disabilities
10.3Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies, and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies, and action.
- 10.3.1 Proportion of the Population Reporting Having Personally Felt Discriminated Against or Harassed Within the Previous 12 Months on the Basis of Discrimination Prohibited Under International Human Rights Law
10.4Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage, and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality.
- 10.4.1 Labor Share of GDP
- 10.4.2 Redistributive Impact of Fiscal Policy
10.5Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations.
- 10.5.1 Financial Soundness Indicators
10.6Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable, and legitimate institutions.
- 10.6.1 Proportion of Members and Voting Rights of Developing Countries in International Organizations
10.7Facilitate orderly, safe, regular, and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies.
- 10.7.1 Recruitment Cost Borne by Employee as a Proportion of Yearly Income Earned in Country of Destination
- 10.7.2 Number of Countries with Migration Policies That Facilitate Orderly, Safe, Regular, and Responsible Migration and Mobility of People
- 10.7.3 Number of People Who Died or Disappeared in the Process of Migration Toward an International Destination
- 10.7.4 Proportion of the Population Who Are Refugees by Country of Origin
10.aImplement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements.
- 10.a.1 Proportion of Tariff Lines Applied to Imports From Least Developed Countries and Developing Countries with Zero-Tariff
10.bEncourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to states where the need is greatest in accordance with their national plans and programs.
- 10.b.1 Total Resource Flows for Development by Recipient and Donor Countries and Type of Flow (e.g. Official Development Assistance, Foreign Direct Investment, and Other Flows)
10.cBy 2030, reduce to less than three percent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than five percent.
- 10.c.1 Remittance Costs as a Proportion of the Amount Remitted